Higher Order Functions

Meet lambda. Scala provides a relatively lightweight syntax for defining anonymous functions. Anonymous functions in source code are called function literals and at run time, function literals are instantiated into objects called function values.

Scala supports first-class functions, which means you can express functions in function literal syntax, i.e. (x: Int) => x + 1, and those functions can be represented by objects, which are called function values.

def lambda = { x: Int ⇒
  x + 1
def lambda2 = (x: Int) ⇒ x + 2
val lambda3 = (x: Int) ⇒ x + 3

val lambda4 = new Function1[Int, Int] {
  def apply(v1: Int): Int = v1 - 1

def lambda5(x: Int) = x + 1

val result = lambda(3)
val `result1andhalf` = lambda.apply(3)

val result2 = lambda2(3)
val result3 = lambda3(3)
val result4 = lambda4(3)
val result5 = lambda5(3)

result should be(res0)
result1andhalf should be(res1)
result2 should be(res2)
result3 should be(res3)
result4 should be(res4)
result5 should be(res5)

An anonymous function can also take on a different look by taking out the brackets:

def lambda = (x: Int) ⇒ x + 1
def result = lambda(5)
result should be(res0)

Here the only variable used in the function body, i * 10, is i, which is defined as a parameter to the function.

val multiplier = (i: Int) => i * 10

A closure is a function which maintains a reference to one or more variables outside of the function scope (it "closes over" the variables). Scala will detect that you are using variables outside of scope and create an object instance to hold the shared variables.

var incrementer = 1

def closure = { x: Int ⇒
  x + incrementer

val result1 = closure(10)
result1 should be(res0)

incrementer = 2

val result2 = closure(10)
result2 should be(res1)

And then we get to Higher Order Functions: Higher Order Functions are functions that take functions as arguments and/or return functions.

We can take that closure and throw it into a Higher Order Function and it will still hold the environment:

def summation(x: Int, y: Int ⇒ Int) = y(x)

var incrementer = 3
def closure = (x: Int) ⇒ x + incrementer

val result = summation(10, closure)
result should be(res0)

incrementer = 4
val result2 = summation(10, closure)
result2 should be(res1)

Higher Order Function returning another function:

def addWithoutSyntaxSugar(x: Int): Function1[Int, Int] = {
  new Function1[Int, Int]() {
    def apply(y: Int): Int = x + y
addWithoutSyntaxSugar(1).isInstanceOf[Function1[Int, Int]] should be(res0)

addWithoutSyntaxSugar(2)(3) should be(res1)

def fiveAdder: Function1[Int, Int] = addWithoutSyntaxSugar(5)
fiveAdder(5) should be(res2)

Function returning another function using an anonymous function:

def addWithSyntaxSugar(x: Int) = (y: Int) ⇒ x + y

addWithSyntaxSugar(1).isInstanceOf[Function1[Int, Int]] should be(res0)
addWithSyntaxSugar(2)(3) should be(res1)

def fiveAdder = addWithSyntaxSugar(5)
fiveAdder(5) should be(res2)

isInstanceOf is the same as instanceof in java, but in this case the parameter types can be *blanked out* using existential types with a single underline, since parameter types are unknown at runtime.

def addWithSyntaxSugar(x: Int) = (y: Int) ⇒ x + y

addWithSyntaxSugar(1).isInstanceOf[Function1[_, _]] should be(res0)

Function taking another function as a parameter. Helps in composing functions.

Hint: a map method applies the function to each element of a list.

def makeUpper(xs: List[String]) = xs map {

def makeWhatEverYouLike(xs: List[String], sideEffect: String ⇒ String) =
  xs map sideEffect

makeUpper(List("abc", "xyz", "123")) should be(res0)

makeWhatEverYouLike(List("ABC", "XYZ", "123"), { x ⇒
}) should be(res1)

//using it inline
val myName = (name: String) => s"My name is $name"
makeWhatEverYouLike(List("John", "Mark"), myName) should be(res2)

List("Scala", "Erlang", "Clojure") map (_.length) should be(res3)