Auto Typeclass Derivation

Automatic type class instance derivation

Based on and extending Generic and LabelledGeneric, Lars Hupel (@larsr_h) has contributed the TypeClass family of type classes, which provide automatic type class derivation facilities roughly equivalent to those available with GHC as described in "A Generic Deriving Mechanism for Haskell". There is a description of an earlier iteration of the Scala mechanism here, and examples of its use deriving Show and Monoid instances here and here for labelled coproducts and unlabelled products respectively.

For example, in the Monoid case, once the general deriving infrastructure for monoids is in place, instances are automatically available for arbitrary case classes without any additional boilerplate

trait Monoid[T] {
  def zero: T
  def append(a: T, b: T): T
}

object Monoid extends ProductTypeClassCompanion[Monoid] {
  def mzero[T](implicit mt: Monoid[T]) = mt.zero

  implicit def booleanMonoid: Monoid[Boolean] = new Monoid[Boolean] {
    def zero = false
    def append(a: Boolean, b: Boolean) = a || b
  }

  implicit def intMonoid: Monoid[Int] = new Monoid[Int] {
    def zero = 0
    def append(a: Int, b: Int) = a + b
  }

  implicit def doubleMonoid: Monoid[Double] = new Monoid[Double] {
    def zero = 0.0
    def append(a: Double, b: Double) = a + b
  }

  implicit def stringMonoid: Monoid[String] = new Monoid[String] {
    def zero = ""
    def append(a: String, b: String) = a + b
  }

  object typeClass extends ProductTypeClass[Monoid] {
    def emptyProduct = new Monoid[HNil] {
      def zero = HNil
      def append(a: HNil, b: HNil) = HNil
    }

    def product[F, T <: HList](mh: Monoid[F], mt: Monoid[T]) = new Monoid[F :: T] {
      def zero = mh.zero :: mt.zero
      def append(a: F :: T, b: F :: T) = mh.append(a.head, b.head) :: mt.append(a.tail, b.tail)
    }

    def project[F, G](instance: => Monoid[G], to: F => G, from: G => F) = new Monoid[F] {
      def zero = from(instance.zero)
      def append(a: F, b: F) = from(instance.append(to(a), to(b)))
    }
  }
}

trait MonoidSyntax[T] {
  def |+|(b: T): T
}

object MonoidSyntax {
  implicit def monoidSyntax[T](a: T)(implicit mt: Monoid[T]): MonoidSyntax[T] = new MonoidSyntax[T] {
    def |+|(b: T) = mt.append(a, b)
  }
}

The shapeless-contrib project also contains automatically derived type class instances for Scalaz, Spire and Scalacheck.

// A pair of arbitrary case classes
case class Foo(i: Int, s: String)
case class Bar(b: Boolean, s: String, d: Double)
import MonoidSyntax._
import Monoid.typeClass._

val fooCombined = Foo(13, "foo") |+| Foo(23, "bar")
fooCombined should be(Foo(res0, res1))

val barCombined = Bar(true, "foo", 1.0) |+| Bar(false, "bar", 3.0)
barCombined should be(Bar(res2, res3, res4))