The following set of sections provides a quick tutorial on the Scala language.

The contents is based on the MOOCS Functional Programming Principles in Scala and Functional Program Design in Scala.

The target audience is people who already have *some* experience of programming and who are familiar with
the JVM.

Programming languages give programmers ways to express computations.

Every non-trivial programming language provides:

- primitive expressions representing the simplest elements ;
- ways to
*combine*expressions ; - ways to
*abstract*expressions, which introduce a name for an expression by which it can then be referred to.

Here are some examples of *primitive expressions*:

- The number “1”:

`1`

- The boolean value “true”:

`true`

- The text “Hello, Scala!”:

`"Hello, Scala!"`

(Note the usage of double quotes, `"`

).

More complex expressions can be expressed by *combining* simpler expressions
using *operators*. They can therefore express more complex computations:

- How many is one plus two?

`1 + 2`

- What is the result of the concatenation of the texts “Hello, ” and “Scala!”?

`"Hello, " ++ "Scala!"`

A non-primitive expression is evaluated as follows.

- Take the leftmost operator
- Evaluate its operands (left before right)
- Apply the operator to the operands

The evaluation process stops once it results in a value.

Here is the evaluation of an arithmetic expression:

```
(1 + 2) * 3
3 * 3
9
```

```
1 + 2 shouldBe res0
"Hello, " ++ "Scala!" shouldBe res1
```

Another way to make complex expressions out of simpler expressions is to call
*methods* on expressions:

- What is the size of the text “Hello, Scala!”?

`"Hello, Scala!".size`

Methods are *applied* on expressions using the *dot notation*.

The object on which the method is applied is named the *target object*.

- What is the range of numbers between 1 and 10?

`1.to(10)`

Methods can have *parameters*. They are supplied between parentheses.

In the below examples, the `abs`

method returns the absolute value of a
number, and the `toUpperCase`

method returns the target `String`

in
upper case.

```
"Hello, Scala!".toUpperCase shouldBe res0
-42.abs shouldBe res1
```

Actually, operators are just methods with symbolic names:

`3 + 2 == 3.+(2)`

The *infix syntax* allows you to omit the dot and the parentheses.

The infix syntax can also be used with regular methods:

`1.to(10) == 1 to 10`

Any method with a parameter can be used like an infix operator.

Expressions have a *value* and a *type*. The evaluation model
defines how to get a value out of an expression. Types classify values.

Both `0`

and `1`

are numbers, their type is `Int`

.

`"foo"`

and `"bar"`

are text, their type is `String`

.

The Scala compiler statically checks that you don’t combine incompatible expressions.

Fill the following blank with values whose type is
different from `Int`

and see the result:

`1 to res0`

`Int`

: 32-bit integers (e.g.`1`

,`23`

,`456`

)`Double`

: 64-bit floating point numbers (e.g.`1.0`

,`2.3`

,`4.56`

)`Boolean`

: boolean values (`true`

and`false`

)`String`

: text (e.g.`"foo"`

,`"bar"`

)

Note that type names always begin with an upper case letter.

Here are some more methods of standard types. Can you guess what they do?

```
16.toHexString shouldBe res0
(0 to 10).contains(10) shouldBe true
(0 until 10).contains(10) shouldBe res1
"foo".drop(1) shouldBe "oo"
"bar".take(2) shouldBe res2
```